Publications using MC-SET

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AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
Young, R.J., Buxbaum, A., Peterson, B. and Schampers, R. Applications of In-situ Sample Preparation and Modeling of SEM-STEM Imaging 2008 ISTFA 2008  conference DOI URL 
Abstract: Scanning transmission electron microscopy with scanning electron microscopes
(SEM-STEM) has become increasing used in both SEM and dual-beam focused
ion beam (FIB)-SEM systems. This paper describes modeling undertaken
to simulate the contrast seen in such images. Such modeling provides
the ability to help understand and optimize imaging conditions and
also support improved sample preparation techniques.
BibTeX:
@conference{young08,
  author = {Young, R. J. and Buxbaum, A. and Peterson, B. and Schampers, R.},
  title = {Applications of In-situ Sample Preparation and Modeling of SEM-STEM Imaging},
  booktitle = {ISTFA 2008},
  publisher = {ASM International},
  year = {2008},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/sem_stem_imaging_R_Young_FEI.pdf},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1361/cp2008istfa320}
}
Napchan, E. Backscattered Electrons in the SEM 2001 Microscopy and Analysis
Vol. 2001, pp. 9-11 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{micana01,
  author = {Napchan, E.},
  title = {Backscattered Electrons in the SEM},
  journal = {Microscopy and Analysis},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {2001},
  pages = {9-11},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/micana01.pdf}
}
Holt, D.B., Napchan, E., Lazzarini, L., Salviati, G. and Urchulutegui, M. Beam-induced dislocations and their CL contrast 1993
Vol. 134IOP Conference Series Number 134, pp. 661-666 
conference URL 
Abstract: Dislocations induced by high SEM beam currents in GaAs were studied
by TEM and emission CL. They were found to consist of bowed segments
and confirmed to have [001] Burgers vectors. The capacity of different
SEMs to induce dislocations varied greatly. Methods for recording
CL contrast profiles and a Monte Carlo based program for CL calculations
are presented.
BibTeX:
@conference{msm93,
  author = {Holt, D. B. and Napchan, E. and Lazzarini, L. and Salviati, G. and Urchulutegui, M.},
  title = {Beam-induced dislocations and their CL contrast},
  booktitle = {IOP Conference Series Number 134},
  publisher = {Institute of Physics, UK},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {134},
  pages = {661-666},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/msm93.pdf}
}
Bonard, J.M., Ganiere, J.D., Akamatsu, B., Araujo, D. and Reinhart, F.K. Cathodoluminescence study of the spatial distribution of electron-hole pairs generated by and electron beam in Al0.4Ga0.6As 1996 J. Appl. Phys.
Vol. 79(11), pp. 8693-8703 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{BonardJM1996,
  author = {Bonard, J. M. and Ganiere, J. D. and Akamatsu, B. and Araujo, D. and Reinhart, F. K.},
  title = {Cathodoluminescence study of the spatial distribution of electron-hole pairs generated by and electron beam in Al0.4Ga0.6As},
  journal = {J. Appl. Phys.},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {79},
  number = {11},
  pages = {8693-8703},
  url = {https://www.mc-set.com/docs/bonard.pdf}
}
Development of hydrogen loading system and characterization of tritiated metallic films for betavoltaic batteries 2014   proceedings URL 
Abstract: Currently, no portable power source extends beyond 10 years in extreme temperature environments, e.g. -40°C to 80°C. onventional electrochemical batteries do not perform well at extreme temperatures and rarely operate longer than 5 years; thermally induced performance degradation is common. However, commercial betavoltaic batteries can operate in excess of 10 years over extreme temperatures. Potential applications for low-power betavoltaic sources may be found in distributed power systems, sensors, remote power, and biomedical devices & implants. Betavoltaic technology is rapidly maturing, giving rise to numerous areas of research and development, e.g. beta source and semiconductor efficiency.
This study presents an update on some current aspects of betavoltaics, challenges existing within the technology, and research and development currently being conducted. The substrate material that serves as the sync or storage medium for the radioisotope source has become a significant challenge due to issues associated with loading techniques, thin-film roperties, beta-particle interaction, and defect damage.
Recent betavoltaic designs invoking tritium stored as tritides in titanium and scandium demonstrated a number of practical difficulties yielding to material damage and inconsistent tritium concentrations. Various material modifications and hydrogen loading techniques are being evaluated to proof new methods, materials and designs that result in less expensive tritiated foils with consistent concentrations. Modeling experiments are being
conducted to verify and validate the loading and storage mechanism of tritium in the metal hydrides.
BibTeX:
@proceedings{adams_2014,,
  title = {Development of hydrogen loading system and characterization of tritiated metallic films for betavoltaic batteries},
  year = {2014},
  url = {https://www.mc-set.com/docs/Adams_hydrogen_loading_Final ICONE22-30174.pdf}
}
Napchan, E. Electron And Photon-Matter Interaction: Energy Dissipation And Injection Level 1989 Revue De Physique Appliquee
Vol. 24(6), pp. C6-15 C6-29 
article URL 
Abstract: Energy dissipation by a light or electron beam inside a specimen is
the primary parameter responsible for generating signals used to
characterize the sample under investigation. The commonly used semi-empirical
descriptions of this energy dissipation profile are presented. Their
limitations in dealing with particular experimental conditions, such
as multi-layer specimens anQ--varying beam tilt angles, make it necessary
to evaluate the beam-matter interaction parameters by methods such
as Monte Carlo simulations. The physical principles of these simulations
are introduced along with the presentation of computational details
of a fast calculation program developed by the author, in particular
for dealing with the evaluation of energy deposition: Some of the
applications of calculated energy dissipation profiles and other
data· calculated in the beam induced assessment of device properties
are outlined, along with examples comparing simulation results to
experimental data.
BibTeX:
@article{biads88,
  author = {Napchan, E.},
  title = {Electron And Photon-Matter Interaction: Energy Dissipation And Injection Level},
  journal = {Revue De Physique Appliquee},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {24},
  number = {6},
  pages = {C6-15 C6-29},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/biads_88_enapchan_ajp-jphyscol198950C602.pdf}
}
Farhang, H., Napchan, E. and Blott, B.H. Electron backscattering and secondary electron emission from carbon targets: comparison of experimental results with Monte Carlo simulations 1993 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.
Vol. 26, pp. 2266-2271 
article URL 
Abstract: Electron backscattering (EBS) and secondary electron emission (SEE)
yield have been measured for bulk carbon with a density of 1.8 g
cm-3, for primary electron energies in the range from 100 to 500
eV and from 12 to 1000 eV respectively. The backscattering results
were in agreement with an empirical formula to within 2%. The SEE
yield value was 0.04 at lowest measured energy (12 eV) and reached
a maximum value of 0.54 at about 300 eV. The backscattering coefficients
and SEE yield have also been calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation
for the energy range from 12 to 1000 eV. In the simulation, two different
energy loss characteristics were used. The first was obtained from
a set of optical data and gave good agreement with the experimental
SEE yield but poor agreement with the backscattering data. The second
was obtained from a modified Bethe energy loss function which fitted
the backscattering data well. Using the Bethe loss function for each
primary electron, the SEE yield was calculated for every path length
between scattering events by dividing the primary electron energy
lost per unit path length by the average energy required to create
a secondary electron. The SEE data was fitted on the assumption that
the average energy to create a secondary varied with primary electron
energy according to a four parameter function. Comparison of the
calculated SEE yield with the experimental SEE yield, as a function
of incident angle of the primary beam, was good over the energy range
from 100 to 500 eV.
BibTeX:
@article{farhang93,
  author = {Farhang, H. and and Napchan, E. and Blott, B. H.},
  title = {Electron backscattering and secondary electron emission from carbon targets: comparison of experimental results with Monte Carlo simulations},
  journal = {J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {26},
  pages = {2266-2271},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/farhang93.pdf}
}
Napchan, E. Electron beam dissipation volume effects on lateral and depth probing of semiconducting layers 2001
Vol. 169IOP Conference Series Number 169 
conference URL 
Abstract: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron trajectories for multi -layered
sample geometries are used for studying the depth and lateral resolution
under various experimental conditions. The resulting three-dimensional
beam energy dissipation data is used to evaluate depth and radial
beam exposure information, which provides an insight into depth and
lateral resolution of electron beam techniques. The application of
such simulations to compound materials and the various methods used
for calculating average parameter values are discussed. Different
average value calculation methods can result in significantly different
electron doses, the choice of which can not be made a priori without
comparison to experimental data.
BibTeX:
@conference{msm01,
  author = {Napchan, E.},
  title = {Electron beam dissipation volume effects on lateral and depth probing of semiconducting layers},
  booktitle = {IOP Conference Series Number 169},
  publisher = {Institute of Physics, UK},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {169},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/msm01.pdf}
}
Holt, D., Napchan, E., Reehal, H., Wang, L. and Summers, S. Electron Beam Microanalysis of Crystalline Silicon Films Grown on Foreign Substrates for Solar Cells 2000 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 1-5 May 2000, Glasgow, UK, pp. 1738-1741  conference URL 
Abstract: Electron backscattering pattern analysis is a powerful, relatively
new sCaIming electron microscope teclmique that can rapidly detennine
the degree of crystallinity e.g. the size and orientation of large
numbers of grains and the presence or absence of elastic strain in
polycrystalline thin films. By measuring the electron beam induced
current in a solar cell for a range of beam energies, the value of
the minority carrier ditTusion length at the point of beam impact
can be detennined. These teclmiques were used to characterise thin
crystalline silicon films and solar cells fonned by electron cyclotron
resonance - plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition on a variety
of foreign substrates.
BibTeX:
@conference{epsc00,
  author = {Holt, D.B and Napchan, E. and Reehal, H.R.E and Wang, L. and Summers,S.},
  title = {Electron Beam Microanalysis of Crystalline Silicon Films Grown on Foreign Substrates for Solar Cells},
  booktitle = {16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 1-5 May 2000, Glasgow, UK},
  publisher = {James and James (Science Publishers) Ltd.},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {1738-1741},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/epsc00.pdf}
}
Grunbaum, E., Napchan, E., Barkay, Z., Barnham, K., Nelson, J., Foxon, C.T., Roberts, J.S. and Holt, D.B. Evaluation of the minority carrier diffusion length by means of electron beam induced current and Monte Carlo simulation in AIGaAs and GaAs p-i-n solar cells 1995 Semicond. Sci. Technol.
Vol. 10, pp. 627-633 
article URL 
Abstract: A new method of determining the minority carrier diffusion length
in multilayer solar cells is described. Electron beam-induced current
(EBIC) gain measurements, performed in a scanning electron microscope
in the planar sample configuration, are compared with values obtained
by calculations using a Monte Carlo simulation program of electron
trajectories. Values for diffusion lengths obtained by this method
from five AIGaAs and GaAs p-i-n and p-n solar cells are compared
with values given in the literature.
BibTeX:
@article{grunb95,
  author = {Grunbaum, E. and Napchan, E. and Barkay, Z. and Barnham, K. and Nelson, J. and Foxon, C. T. and Roberts, J. S. and Holt, D. B.},
  title = {Evaluation of the minority carrier diffusion length by means of electron beam induced current and Monte Carlo simulation in AIGaAs and GaAs p-i-n solar cells},
  journal = {Semicond. Sci. Technol.},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {627-633},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/grunb95.pdf}
}
Napchan, E. and Joy, D.C. Experimental electron scattering data: web interface for updating and graphical presentation 2006 Scanning 2006  conference URL 
BibTeX:
@conference{SCAN2006_exp_elect_scatter,
  author = {Napchan, E. and Joy, D. C.},
  title = {Experimental electron scattering data: web interface for updating and graphical presentation},
  booktitle = {Scanning 2006},
  publisher = {FAMS, Inc., Mahwah, N.J., USA},
  year = {2006},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/SCAN2006_exp_elect_scatter.pdf}
}
Schilling, J. and Kolbe, A.S.U.G.M. Macroporous silicon membranes as electron and x-ray transmissive windows 2004 Applied Physics Letters  article URL 
Abstract: Macroporous silicon membranes are fabricated whose pores are terminated with 60 nm thin silicon dioxide shells. The transmission of electrons with energies of 5 kV-25 kV through these membranes was investigated reaching a maximum of 22% for 25 kV. Furthermore, the transmission of electromagnetic radiation ranging from the far-infrared to the x-ray region was determined. The results suggest the application of the membrane as window material for electron optics and energy dispersive x-ray detectors.
BibTeX:
@article{membranes_2004,
  author = {J. Schilling and A. Schere U. Gosele M. Kolbe},
  title = {Macroporous silicon membranes as electron and x-ray transmissive windows},
  journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
  year = {2004},
  url = {https://www.mc-set.com/docs/schilling.pdf}
}
Klimo, O., Napchan, E. and Limpouch, J. Monte Carlo calculations of X-rays generation for electron beams with energies up to 500 keVolts 2003
Vol. 180IOP Conference Series Number 180 
conference URL 
Abstract: The MC-SET Monte Carlo program for simulation of electron trajectories
is being improved by adding X-rays generation calculation for each
electron trajectory step. The method uses the 3D (N = 100 elements
per dimension) energy deposition matrix and an additional equivalent
matrix of average electron energies. These two matrixes provide us
all information about an electron energy deposition in the specimen
and allow us to carry generalized shell ionization computations and
to obtain the 3D distribution of K shell ionization. Simulation results
include the number of K-alpha photons per steradian per electron
flying out from a spot of electron beam incidence in a specified
direction, and information about the depth generation. The simulation
can be used for individual elements with different tilt angles and
with electron energies up to 500 keV, and for multi-layered specimens.
Simulation results are in good greement with experimental results
and with other calculations.
BibTeX:
@conference{msm03,
  author = {Klimo, O. and Napchan, E. and Limpouch, J.},
  title = {Monte Carlo calculations of X-rays generation for electron beams with energies up to 500 keVolts},
  booktitle = {IOP Conference Series Number 180},
  publisher = {Institute of Physics, UK},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {180},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/msm03.pdf}
}
Napchan, E. Monte Carlo Simulation Of Electron Trajectories 1992 European Microscopy And Analysis
Vol. 1992, pp. 21-23 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{eumica92,
  author = {Napchan, E.},
  title = {Monte Carlo Simulation Of Electron Trajectories},
  journal = {European Microscopy And Analysis},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {1992},
  pages = {21-23},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/eumica92.pdf}
}
Napchan, E. Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories for samples with complex geometries 2006 Scanning 2006  conference URL 
BibTeX:
@conference{SCAN2006_mc-set_samples_complex_geometries,
  author = {Napchan, E.},
  title = {Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories for samples with complex geometries},
  booktitle = {Scanning 2006},
  publisher = {FAMS, Inc., Mahwah, N.J., USA},
  year = {2006},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/SCAN2006_mc-set_samples_complex_geometries.pdf}
}
Napchan, E. and Benarroch, J. Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories for the study of betavoltaic battery configurations 2014 mmc2014  conference URL 
BibTeX:
@conference{mmc2104_betavoltaic_simulation,
  author = {Napchan, E. and Benarroch, J.},
  title = {Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories for the study of betavoltaic battery configurations},
  booktitle = {mmc2014},
  publisher = {RMS},
  year = {2014},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/mmc2014_simul_trajectories_betavoltaic.pdf}
}
Napchan, E. and Lahav, A. Monte Carlo simulations of SEM work with semiconducting devices 2007 Scanning  conference URL 
BibTeX:
@conference{SCAN2007_mc-set_semiconducting_devices,
  author = {Napchan, E. and Lahav, A.},
  title = {Monte Carlo simulations of SEM work with semiconducting devices},
  booktitle = {Scanning},
  publisher = {fams.org},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/SCAN2007_mc-set_semiconducting_devices.pdf}
}
Holt, D.B. and Napchan, E. Quantifying Scanning Electron Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 1993 Multinational Congress on Electron Microscopy  conference URL 
Abstract: Progress is being made in the quantification of SEM EBIC and CL through
advances in instrumentation and in the application of Monte Carlo
electron trajectory simulation to calculate signals as functions
of SEM and materials parameters. Contrast simulation then becomes
readily possible also. Recent developments in this field are outlined
and some tasks for the future are pointed out.
BibTeX:
@conference{parma93,
  author = {Holt, D. B. and Napchan, E.},
  title = {Quantifying Scanning Electron Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials},
  booktitle = {Multinational Congress on Electron Microscopy},
  year = {1993},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/parma93.pdf}
}
Holt, D.B. and Napchan, E. Quantitation of SEM EBIC and CL Signals Using Monte Carlo Electron-Trajectory Simulations 1994 Scanning
Vol. 16, pp. 78-86 
article URL 
Abstract: A microcomputer Monte Carlo program simulates electron trajectories
in solids and describes the distribution of energy deposited throughout
the energy-dissipation (electron-hole pair generation) volume. From
this distribution, the electron-be aminduced current or cathodoluminescence
signal that will be generated can be calculated for the chosen beam
conditions in a multilayer specimen of any geometry and compositions.
The use of this program is illustrated by applications (1) to simulate
curves of cathodoluminescence intensity versus beam energy for fitting
to experimental data to evaluate materials and device parameters,
(2) to calculate the energy deposited in each layer of a HEMT structure
in which electron-be am-induced current studies are in progress,
and (3) to the simulation of defect contrast linescan profiles which
are compared to experimental observations.
BibTeX:
@article{scan94,
  author = {Holt, D. B. and Napchan, E.},
  title = {Quantitation of SEM EBIC and CL Signals Using Monte Carlo Electron-Trajectory Simulations},
  journal = {Scanning},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {78-86},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/scan94.pdf}
}
Holt, D.B., Napchan, E., Lazzarini, L., Urchulutegui, M. and Salviati, G. Quantitative studies of beam-induced defects in III - V compounds by cathodoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy 1994 Materials Science and Engineering, ()
Vol. B24, pp. 130-134 
article URL 
Abstract: Electron beam currents above about 1 pA induce long straight dislocations
lying just below the surface in (001) wafers of GaAs and InP. These
dislocations are of interest in themselves and are well situated
for cathodoluminescence (CL) dark contrast studies. Microcomputer
Monte Carlo electron trajectory simulation-based programs were written
to calculate emitted CL intensities and to simulate defect CL contrast
profiles. Series of simulations for increasing beam energies (penetration
range) show that the dislocation contrast is a maximum for a certain
accelerating voltage which enables the dislocation depth to be determined.
The magnitude of the contrast for a given beam energy increases with
increasing defect recombination strength which can therefore be identified.
The possibility of finding the number of dislocations in individual
dark line bundles is discussed. The results of further transmission
electron microscopy observations on the beam-induced dislocations
are also presented.
BibTeX:
@article{mseng94,
  author = {Holt, D. B. and Napchan, E. and Lazzarini, L. and Urchulutegui, M. and Salviati, G.},
  title = {Quantitative studies of beam-induced defects in III - V compounds by cathodoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy},
  journal = {Materials Science and Engineering, ()},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {B24},
  pages = {130-134},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/mseng94.pdf}
}
Holt, D.B., Napchan, E., Reehal, H. and Toal, S. SEM EBIC characterization of SiC/Si solar cells 1999
Vol. 164IOP Conference Series Number 164, pp. 703-706 
conference URL 
Abstract: A number of experimental solar cells with SiC emitters and Si bases,
varying in photovoltaic efficiency from 0.1 to 5.8 %, were examined
by EBIC. Defect particles were observed in the cells using EBIC.
Evidence was found that suggests that the top contacts on the 0.1
% cell were Schottky not ohmic in character. Quantitative EBIC linescans
across these metal fingers were analysed to obtain values for L,
the minority carrier diffusion length.
BibTeX:
@conference{msm99c,
  author = {Holt, D. B. and Napchan, E. and Reehal, H. and Toal, S.},
  title = {SEM EBIC characterization of SiC/Si solar cells},
  booktitle = {IOP Conference Series Number 164},
  publisher = {Institute of Physics, UK},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {164},
  pages = {703-706},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/msm99c.pdf}
}
Ferranti, S.L.W. and James, C.E. Theoretical Explanation of the Relationship between Backscattered Electron and X-Ray Linear Attenuation Coefficients in Calcified Tissues 1997 Scanning
Vol. 19, pp. 541-546 
article URL 
Abstract: X-ray absorption and backscattered electron (BSE) microscopies are two commonly used techniques for estimating mineral contents in calcified tissues. The resolution in BSE images is usually higherthan in x-ray images, but
due to the previous lackofgood standards to quantify the grey levels in BSE images ofbones and teeth, x-ray microtomography (XMT) images ofthe same specimens have been used for calibration. However, the physics ofthese two techniques is different: for a specimen with a given composition, the xray linear attenuation coefficient is proportional to density, but there is no such relation with the BSE coefficient. To understand the reason that this calibration appears to be valid, he behaviourofsimulatedbone samples was investigated. I
In this, the bone samples were modelled as having three phases: hydroxyapatite (CalO(P04)iOH)2)' protein, and void (either empty or completely filled with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), a resin which is usually used for embedding bones and teeth in microscopic studies). The x-ray linearattenuation coefficients (calculated using published data) and the BSE coefficients (calculated using Monte Carlo simulation) were compared for samples of various phase proportions. It was found that the BSE coefficient correlated only with the x-ray attenuation coefficient for samples with PMMA infiltration.
This was attributed to the properties ofPMMA (density and mean atomic number) being very similar to those ofthe protein; therefore, the sample behaves like a two-phase system which allows the establishment of a monotonic relation between density and BSE coefficient. With the newly developed standards (brominated and iodinated dimethacrylate esters) for BSE microscopy ofbone, grey levels can be converted to absolute BSE coefficients by linearinterpolation, from which equivalent densities can be determined.
BibTeX:
@article{ferranti1997,
  author = {Ferranti, S. L. W. and James, C. E.},
  title = {Theoretical Explanation of the Relationship between Backscattered Electron and X-Ray Linear Attenuation Coefficients in Calcified Tissues},
  journal = {Scanning},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {19},
  pages = {541-546},
  url = {https://www.mc-set.com/docs/ferranti.pdf}
}
Wong, F.S.L. and Elliot, J.C. Theoretical explanation of the relationship between backscattered electron and x-ray linear attenuation coefficients in calcified tissues 1997 Scanning  article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{WongFS1997,
  author = {Wong, F. S. L. and Elliot, J. C.},
  title = {Theoretical explanation of the relationship between backscattered electron and x-ray linear attenuation coefficients in calcified tissues},
  journal = {Scanning},
  year = {1997},
  url = {https://www.mc-set.com/docs/ferranti.pdf}
}
Lahav, A. and Napchan, E. Thin Films Thickness Measurement by Secondary Electrons Contrast 2007 The 41st Annual Scientific Meeting of ISM  conference URL 
BibTeX:
@conference{ism2007,
  author = {Lahav, A. and Napchan, E.},
  title = {Thin Films Thickness Measurement by Secondary Electrons Contrast},
  booktitle = {The 41st Annual Scientific Meeting of ISM},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://www.mc-set.com/docs/ism07.pdf}
}